In the modern world of technology, algorithms, protocols, and architectures of various processes occupy an important place. Today let’s take a look at architecture. Namely with Monolithic and Microservice architecture. Let’s find out what it is, how it works. And the most important thing is to compare them: monolith vs microservices.
Application architecture is a collection of methods and patterns that help developers create structured applications. Architectures come in many different forms (Layered Architecture, Tiered Architecture, Service Oriented Architecture) — SOA, Microservice Architecture, Monolith Architecture. The architecture assists the professional in working with processes and services. Each architecture has its own pros and cons. Below you can look at Microservice and Monolithic architecture.
What is Monolithic Architecture?
A monolithic application (let’s call it a monolith) is an application delivered through a single deployment. This is an application delivered as a single WAR or a Node application with a single entry point.
Let’s imagine a classic online store. Standard modules: UI, business logic, and data layer. Possible ways of interacting with the service: REST API and web interface.
When building a monolith, all of these things will be managed within the same module. You should not write “the same process” here, as it would not be correct for scenarios in which multiple instances of our module would run for higher loads.
Benefits of Monolithic Architecture
A monolith is much easier to work with. Other architectures require more human effort and time. You don’t need to think about the inter-process connection here. And also about end-to-end (E2E) tests. They are much easier to implement in this type of architecture. Scalability and unfolding are also positive features of the monolith. This is done very simply here. For deployment, the technician can use a script that loads the module and runs the application. Scale up to multiple instances of your application using Loadbalancer. The monolith is very easy to use.
Downsides of Monolith architecture
Monoliths, as a rule, are reborn from their pure state into the so-called “big ball of dirt”. This is briefly described as a condition that occurs because architectural rules have been violated and over time the components have grown together.
All this slows down the work process. Each feature becomes much more difficult to work with. There is also such a problem as the fusion of components, in which case they will have to be changed together. The new function will touch 5 different places and this will have negative side effects for the functions already written.
The problem can also appear from scalability. Since single elements cannot be scaled in a monolith, this can cause serious problems during operation.
The next problem with the monolith is the lack of insulation. If a problem occurs, it can destroy the entire application.
The foundation will be difficult to disconnect or change. This is because the change will occur at once for all parts.
What is Microservice architecture?
In this architecture, all operating services are loosely coupled. This gives a whole host of options.
This stuff is so-called because of their quantity (there are fewer of them than in a monolithic environment). Micro is business space, not process size.
If compare this architecture with monolithic, then here the specialist has more space. This is due to a large number of deployment units. Here each service is deployed on one own of other services.
Let’s take an online store again as an example.
As before, there are UI, business logic, and data layers.
In this architecture, the UI, business logic, and data layer have their own service and database. They are almost unrelated. They can interact with protocols across their boundaries.
Benefits of Microservice Architecture
It’s very easy to keep microservices modular here. This is due to the boundaries between single services.
If the work is in a large company, each employee (or team) can work on a separate service. There is no need to coordinate deployment with all workers.
Microservices, as it is already clear, are small in size. According to these, they are easy to understand and test.
Microservices take much less time from the worker. Because of their compilation time, the tests take little time.
All of the above is very beneficial for CI/CD.
Single services can run on different technologies. You can choose the right technology for each service.
In case of problems with one service, there will be no problems with its isolation. All work will survive the failure of one service.
Downsides of microservices architecture
The connection between services is more complex than in a monolith. Testing issues may occur (E2E tests). There is a partial failure.
Difficult to execute trades (compared to a monolith). You can of course use the Saga Pattern, but it can cause problems in practice.
There is ready overhead and many microservices are difficult to maintain. Here is the Monolith in supremacy.
The processes on such an architecture can be more voluminous than on the Monolith.
If you need to make changes to several services, you will have to use several commands to do this. This can be inconvenient.
Results of Monolith vs Microservices
In today’s world, application architectures are very important. Modern life is built on its basis. It is the only tool to make the world of technology better and more convenient. For both the developer and the user.
Each of these architectures has advantages and downsides. Everything was described in detail here and a small comparison was made.
Here are some guidelines. You can listen to them, or draw other conclusions. Monolithic architecture is more suitable for developing simple, lightweight, and low-cost applications. It is simpler, clearer, less demanding. If a specialist is busy developing complex applications. If he has a need for a complex instrument. It is better to choose Microservice Architecture here.
It is also worth adding that there are still different architectures for applications. Each of them is also unique. Each has pros and cons. And it may be worth paying attention to them.
Hope that you have extracted some information of interest to you. That you have learned a lot. Maybe they decided on the choice between Monolithic and Microservice architecture.